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Citation Guides

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The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides detailed guidelines for using APA style. The most recent (6th) edition of the APA Publication Manual is kept at the Reference Desk at the Irwin and Science Libraries.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Copies are available for use at the library circulation desk.

Additional information on APA style may be found at these websites:

Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).

If you use more than one work by the same author, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007a, pp. 7-8).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).

If two or more authors wrote the work, see the chart below.

If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the parentheses.

Example: In his scholarly study, Dr. Seuss observed that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (2007, pp. 7-8).
Example: In 2007, Dr. Seuss suggested that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (pp. 7-8).

If no author name is available, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Fox in Socks, 2007).

If no pagination information is available, use paragraph numbers instead.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, para. 5).

Note: When paraphrasing or mentioning another work, it is helpful to still provide pagination information if the source text is long or difficult, or if it would help the reader find the text being paraphrased.

Basic Citation Styles

Type of Citation First Citation in Text Subsequent Citations in Text Parenthetical Format, First Citation in Text Parenthetical Format, Subsequent Citations in Text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by three to five authors Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Groups as authors (no abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

Source: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: Author.

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Entire Book: Print Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Entire Book:
Print Version (Two Authors)

Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam

No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing a multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Journal Articles (Print & Online)

Journal: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Vol, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.)

Journal Article with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article without DOI

Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40, 156-159.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination (each issue begins on page 1)

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.

Magazine Article

Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Online Magazine Article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retreved from

Newspaper Article

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Audiovisual Media

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To kill a mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.


Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Images and Tables Retrieved Online

If you use an image, table, or figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from


Other Online Sources

Online Posting: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

(If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.)

Entire website

It is sufficient to give the website address in the text (in parentheses).

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retreived from

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)